Thursday, January 30, 2020

Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Essay Example for Free

Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Essay Quantitative research – is a formal, objective, systematic research which bases on precise figures. While conducting such kind of research, an investigator collects and analyzes data and statistics. The main purposes of applying quantitative method of research are: description of variables; examination of relationship among variables; determination of cause-and-effect interactions between variables (Burns Grove,2005). Qualitative research – in contrast to quantitative, is a kind of research which mainly concentrates on observations, questionnaires, reports and other ways of subjective investigations. The key features of qualitative research are: focus on meanings, perspectives and understandings; emphasis on process; inductive analysis, and grounded theory (Woods, 2006). The basic differences between quantitative and qualitative research lie in methods and instruments they apply, types of data they collect and generate, in their main perspectives. The instruments used in quantitative research are strict about extracting information and dividing it into categories. Quantitative methods are highly structured and include various surveys, questionnaires, and structured observations. In qualitative research, more flexible and frequentative instruments are applied. Qualitative methods, unlike quantitative ones, are semi-structured. To these methods belong interview, focus group, questionnaire, and participant observation. Quantitative research, in contrast to qualitative, operates with numerical data. Qualitative research, as a rule, uses textual data (Mack, Woodsong, et al., 2005). The most important feature which differentiates one research from another is flexibility. Usually, the procedure of quantitative research is prescribed in advance. Therefore, it excludes any unforeseen changes during the process of research. For instance, the questions in quantitative research are well thought-out, concrete, and closed. Moreover, the order of questions is also fixed. In such a way, quantitative research, due to its inflexibility, makes meaningful contribution to common investigation. The stages of qualitative research may be changed during the research procedure. The questions in qualitative research are mostly open. It enables the participants to give more reasonable answers and sometimes, even to go into detail. Therefore, spontaneity became a distinctive feature of qualitative research, which made the process of research less formal (Mack, Woodsong, et al., 2005). References Burns, N., Grove, S.K. (2005). The practice of nursing research: conduct, critique, and utilization (5th Ed.). St. Louis, Elsevier Saunders. Retrieved from Mack, N., Woodsong, C., MacQueen, M. K., Guest, G., Namey, E. (2005). Qualitative research methods: A data collector’s field guide. Retrieved from Woods, P. (2006). Qualitative research. Retrieved from

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

John Locke and the Unequal Distribution of Wealth Essay example -- Empi

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is stated by John Locke that in the state of nature no man may take more then he can consume. â€Å"†¦make use of any advantage of life before it spoils†¦whatever is beyond this is more than his share and belongs to others. Nothing was made by God for man to spoil or destroy. (Locke 14)† Locke then goes on to say, â€Å"God gave the world to man †¦ for their benefit and the greatest conveniences of life they were capable to draw from it, it cannot be supposed he meant it should always remain common and uncultivated. He gave it to the use of the industrious and rational- and labor was to be his title†¦ (Lock 15)† Both of statements can stand alone, each could be argued. For starters, it is not only selfish to take more then you ever will be able to use, it is just stupid, and if you make it with your sweat, why shouldn’t it be yours to keep or profit from. The only problem is, that one of these statements is the head of a starving serpent, and the other its delicious tale. It is hard to believe the head could stay alive without devouring the tale. We should start this argument at the head and work our way down. If John Locke were alive today he would be a lawyer. Not just any lawyer though, a big business lawyer working for a company like Enron. He would try to justify the destruction caused by overly rich, overly powerful people, with statements such as ones that will follow. When first reading Locke you might think, â€Å" Hey, this guy sounds like a lawyer....

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

How did Tolstoy have such a fascinating insight to every level of society?

Leo Tolstoy, -a Russian novelist, a social and moral philosopher and one of the greatest writers of all time- lived during the period of realism. Most of his works present the reader to Russian life in the early 19th century and some of them deal with Russia's past history or social system. How did Tolstoy have such a fascinating insight to every level of society? How did history or the people around him influence his writing? In what ways did he, himself influence people through his writing? Why do people, today read his works all over the world? Leo Tolstoy was born on September 9, 1828, at Yasnaya Polyana, his parents' estate close to Moscow. His mother died when he was two years old. His father was a landowning nobleman, and he died when his son turned nine. Orphaned at an early age, Tolstoy was raised by his aunt, a deeply religious woman. The young Tolstoy received his first education from German and French tutors who taught him at home. Having a good education seemed really important in his eyes, so he attended a university where he studied law and languages. After having lost interest and disagreeing with some of the teachers, he left without a degree and went back to his family's old estate to continue the family tradition. (McGraw-Hill, p. 481) There he set out to reform the imperfect Russian society. During his college years Tolstoy came across some famous works of Jean Jacques Rousseau. The words of the French political thinker, who lived during the years of Enlightment, made a huge impact on the young Tolstoy. Rousseau had great trust in the common people, those who were mostly looked down by higher society. He argued in favor of equality and called for the abolition of all titles of rank and nobility. Tolstoy liked these views and agreed with most of them. He, too, had had faith in the lower classes and clearly saw the faults of nobility. â€Å"Man is born free, and everywhere is in chains,† was his favorite quote from Rousseau. (World History, p. 435) But never would he have imagined what kind of a conflict he got himself into by expressing his views on society. Tolstoy saw the dissipation and extravagance of high society, and also the injustices and poverty of serfs. Serfs were the people forced to work on the land in Russia's feudal system. The feudal system in Russia meant that poor families received land, food and housing from a nobleman, and they worked and served him in return. These people were treated very badly, they lived among horrible conditions and they had no hope of ever improving their condition of life because they never received any education. Tolstoy clearly saw the injustices of this situation and he was saddened to see generations of people sentenced to working for someone else with no way out. He was determined to become a model farmer and a â€Å"father† to his serfs. (McGraw-Hill, p. 481) He traveled to France and Germany and visited several dozen elementary schools across Europe. Finally, Tolstoy set up a school for peasant children, giving them a way to escape their destiny. Because of these actions Tolstoy became in conflict with higher society, which was not happy about the increasing awareness of serfs. His family also limited his generosity; his wife was especially annoyed because of her husband's charity towards the poor. Tolstoy married his wife when he was 34 and Sofya Andreyevna Bers was 16 years younger then her husband. She was a very intelligent, strong-willed woman who gave Tolstoy great happiness and 13 children. Tolstoy continued to work with his serfs and convinced his friends and other people around him to try and better the life of the work force. To everyone's astonishment his estate thrived under the new system where serfs were paid and given education and they lived among better conditions. By making these changes in his estate's economic life and managing it successfully, he convinced many other landowners to improve, too. After the birth of his children, Tolstoy had his own family to think about. Although he never had financial problems, he had to provide a living for his quickly growing family. In the next 15 years he raised a large family and as an escape from everyday problems into the past he wrote his two greatest novels: War and Peace and Anna Karenina. War and Peace represents a high point in Tolstoy's life. It is the story of 1812 when Napoleon, a French general attacked Russia. The story contains 559 characters; important military battles and portrays of historically famous people. The main theme, however is the changing lives of four Russian aristocratic families. Its general message is love of life in all circumstances which was inspired by Tolstoy's personal happiness. The shorter novel of Anna Karenina also deals with high Russian society, but it is more of a psychological work than any of his other pieces. This novel gives the reader the idea that Tolstoy greatly disapproves of intellectuality and urban sophistication and is tormented by the mission of humans in this world (http://www. geocities. com/Athens/Acropolis/6681/tolstoyb. tm). War and Peace and Anna Karenina realistically portrays Russian society in the early 19th century and probably that is the reason why every generations of people all over the world enjoy Tolstoy's works. The next 15 years were spent with seeking the ultimate meaning of life. Tolstoy went through a serious, long-lasting spiritual crisis that gave birth to two of his lesser- known works: Confession and Critique of Dogmatic The ology. In these writings he bravely attacked social inequality and the ultimate powers of government and church. His life was more and more dominated by the desire to achieve social justice and an acceptable system of moral principles. At this time he became involved with public matters and participated in many social events. During this period Tolstoy's relationship with his family became estranged. He planned on giving away all his wealth, but his wife would not hear of it. She would not share the thought of her husband that by doing good things to others might help you achieve understanding of the meaning of life. Finally, they reached a compromise and Sofya received the copyright to all his works before 1881. McGraw-Hill, p. 483) Tolstoy's last years were filled with his worldwide celebration, but they bought him great unhappiness. During these years he lived far from the world, and led a quiet life. Rejecting the foundations of Russian society and religion he established his own religion in which he explained that God lives in all people. The Eastern Orthodox Church for his view of God excommunicated Tolstoy. At the age of 82, in 1910, increasingly tormented by his personal beliefs, religious persecution, his personal wealth and by the hopeless quarrels with his wife, he decided to leave his family. He set out on his last pilgrimage in search of justification and truth. Three days later he fell ill and died on November 20, in the home of a station manager. He was later buried at his dear Yasnaya Polyana, where he spent most of his happiest years. Tolstoy benefitted from many things he received in his childhood. When foreign teachers tutored him he learned their languages completely. Therefore he knew Russian, his native language, and he spoke French and German perfectly, too. He later applied this knowledge in his books, writing in all three languages. The concept of God and the purpose and meaning of religion troubled Tolstoy throughout his life. He had always been in search of the concept of right or wrong, but never could achieve an understanding of the matter. Tolstoy' on ideas on religion and on nonresistance to evil influenced Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. Both of these men fought nonviolently for rights and the well being of their people: Gandhi in India against the British and Luther King for equality for blacks. Other famous Russian authors of this period were Fyodor Dostoevsky and Ivan Turgenev. McGraw-Hill, p. 484) Tolstoy's life seems a little bit of struggle at some points, but he really gave a lot to this world. He made a huge difference by getting rid of his convictions and doing what he thought was best for society. He even had the courage to express his views that were not welcomed by most of the people around him. Tolstoy is known for his books, however, that bought him worldwide acclaim in his living, but he is still celebrated today as one of the world's greatest author of all times.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Government Of The United States Government Essay

Madison Cissell MSU 176 Symposium Primary: United States Government Secondary: Tourism The United States government is the federal government of the America’s fifty states, as well as one capital district, and several other territories. The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are settled by the U.S. Constitution in Congress, our President, and the federal courts (including the Supreme Court). The powers of these branches are defined by acts of Congress, including the creation of the executive departments and of the courts secondary to the Supreme Court. The outline of the government of America is laid out in the Constitution. The government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the world s first modern national republic. The United States government is based on the different principles of federalism and republicanism, in which the power is shared between the federal and state governments. The interpretation and execution of these principles has been debated ever since the adoption of the Constitution. Some are in support of extensive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role in relation to individuals. One of the theoretical pillars in the United States Constitution is the idea of checks and balances being found among the powers and responsibilities of the three branches. Congress is the legislative branch and is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives andShow MoreRelatedThe Government Of The United States Government926 Words   |  4 PagesThe United States government was created by the founding fathers to allow men to be free, but to also have a governmental system that protects that freedom as well. The United States government is problematic. It goes above and beyond the necessity and, because of this, is dysfunctional at best. The government today has gone beyond protecting the rights of American citizens. It has become a large entity that is wholly useless. The government of the United States is too large, therefore, this createsRead MoreGovernment And The Government Of The United States Government1974 Words   |  8 Pagesinvolved in a government decision to hel p a large bank? On the surface, it is a simple answer. Some might think just the banks and the government because that is who made the decision, and the banks are the ones that were helped by that decision. The United States government is comprised of leaders elected by the citizens. The United States government also relies on the taxes generated by these same citizens which help fund government programs, the military and many other things. A government bailout isRead MoreUnited States Government And The Government3865 Words   |  16 Pages United States government is established by the constitution. United States is a federal republic country. The government consists of a federal power led by the president. 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This power was, however, extremely limited — the central government conducted diplomacy and made war, set weights and mea sures, was the final arbiter of disputes between the states, but it could not raise anyRead MoreThe United States Government1536 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States government may not always be seen as a flawless group; however, it is generally more favorable than having corporations ruling over America. In Pills and Starships, Nat and her family do not have a stable government to rely on, and they are instead at the whims of the corps’ intense regulations, pharmacontrol, and sponsored massacres. The corps uses manipulation often in order to achieve their goal of rejuvenating the Earth so they can remain. In Pills and Starships, Lydia MilletRead MoreThe United States Government1099 Words   |  5 PagesFor some people, it is difficult to understand how the United States government is laid out, what the three branches of the government are, or how they are different from one another. Those people may not understand how each branch keeps one another in line or how their du ties are divided. Each branch has its own individual set of responsibilities and duties to make sure the government is run precisely and that the rights of the citizens are respected. Learning about the three branches further beckonsRead MoreThe United States Government1309 Words   |  6 PagesBrianna Winn Mr. Smith English 111 18 May 2016 Fact or Fiction The United States government was formed to create a democracy fit for the idea that they would be considered â€Å"land of the free.† Unfortunately, throughout the history of several world wide events, the intentions of the â€Å"forefathers† have strayed to manipulate events and people. The government has been accused for many past years of lying when main events strike the nation causing many tragedies as well as causing emotional anguish onRead MoreThe Government Of The United States1275 Words   |  6 Pages The government of the United States is divided into three parts- the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The vast amount of control within this government is split between the aforementioned three branches; and is also known as power. The definition of power as given by the Merriam-Webster dictionary is ‘[the] ability to act or produce an effect’, which in the instance of power within the government would imply the ability to produce an effect on the economy or wellbeing of the United